Instead of transistor technology that was utilized in second generation computers, third generation of computers employed integrated circuits. It was between the years 1964 and 1970. An integrated circuit is a tiny little chip that contains a whole circuit on it marked by third-generation computers. Computer memory, microprocessor, or even amplifier can be utilized as an integrated circuit on third generation computers.
The first to understand the concept of a complete circuit on a small chip was an American electrical engineer along with his physicist fellow. They did this by the year 1959. This invention in which a large circuit was placed on a tiny little chip changed the whole computer world and played an important role in the progress of computer usage all around the world.
Comparison with other Generations
The technology employed in third generation computers made them dependable, efficient, and compact in size when compared to previous era computers. The integrated circuit based computers had, a quicker speed, dependability, less heat generated, fewer maintenance, compared to two previous generations of computers. They used less power; it was still expensive, and air conditioning was essential.
3rd Generation and Central Processors
At the time of the third generation of computers, the central CPU was built with several integrated circuits. Only in the fourth generation did the whole CPU have to be placed on one silicone chip. In addition, the third generation of computers was the multi-programming system, time-sharing and remote processing. High-level programming languages have been used during this invention for their operational objectives and for giving the input instruction to the computers.
Advantages of the Integrated Circuits based Computers
As the computers of the third generation were created using small chips that contained a whole circuit on them known as the integrated circuit that resulted in various computer world benefits and limits for users. For example, the third generation computers were continuously high in quality and performance compared with the prior two generation computers, which made them more trustworthy. Moreover, less heat was generated and less energy was utilized.
During operations they do not have a huge energy requirement and they also created less heat. Due to their portable usage and improved speed, they were frequently utilized. These computers had a head discharge fan and no manual calculation was required. The maintenance costs were minimal due to uncommon hardware failure. They have a large storage capacity to contain information for general applications.
Disadvantages of the Integrated Circuits based Computers
Although these computers were far better than the generations of computers that came before them but still many disadvantages are there in these integrated circuit based computers. One of the greatest drawbacks of these third era computers was that, although they generated fewer amount of heats, they still needed air cooling for their continuous and proper functioning. With the advanced technology, the fabrication of the IC chip was conceivable. Official training was needed to operate these third-generation computers. In addition, the maintenance of the integrated circuit chips was also very difficult.